Studying Language - Essay Example In addition, social variations in the use of dialects exist, the linguistic levels to which these can be applied include vocabulary, idiomacity, grammar and pronunciation. In simple terms, this is the words used, the special meanings and forms they are used in, the way they are place within sentences and how they are spoken. How dialect, or its social variation 'sociolect' is used, depends on the situation a person is in elements of which are described as who, what and where, all of which will impact on the style of language usage. For example, people will often use what they describe as their 'posh' or 'telephone' voice when answering a call. So somebody from Northern Ireland, speaking in a 'casual style' of dialect, may greet a friend or acquaintance with adda boutcha(How are you), will change this to ow're ya doin- still dialectic, but in the 'careful' style when meeting someone new or who they consider superior. There is more attention paid to the use of speech, with the changes in vocabulary, idiom and pronunciation, bearing out the contention that situations influence how speech is monitored. In sociolinguistic terms, shared knowledge of a language by a sufficient number of people creates a dialect. As with many languages, dialects have their own peculiar sounding of words, particularly where vowels are concerned. An illustration which shows how this works comes from the East Yorkshire coast. Received pronunciation, or indeed other parts of Britain, will fully round out the vowel sounds in the words 'bonny bairn'. With the flattened vowel sounds of Hull and the East Coast, this becomes something like 'bernie bern' - which takes 2. the issue into the realms of the use of words in dialect. 'Bonny' could be 'beautiful' elsewhere, and of course 'bairn' is 'baby'. The Scots and Irish would sound the 'r', but it is virtually silent in the Hull example. Other examples of different lexical terms demonstrate dialectic differences where one part of the country talks about having dinner, another calls it supper. In American English, a lift becomes an elevator and the police station is the precinct, and so on. The precinct is where shopping takes place in large British cities, but the Americans go to the mall. So it can safely be said that everybody talks in a dialect of some sort, or at least incorporates linguistic elements of regional or social variations into verbal communication, true about all languages, worldwide. One amazing example of Ulster dialectic mystery concerns the sedum plant of the dark, ruby red flowered variety. In Northern Ireland, this is a 'Mullingar Heifer' and it is difficult to imagine what a native of Bristol would make of it. Coupled with dialect, the regional accent is found, which may account for confusion as to differences in definition. Accent is defined (COD, p.6) as . Prominence given to syllable by stress or in some languages, by pitch[...]2. Individual, local or national mode of pronunciation;An accent refers to a more general pronunciation of English and (indeed other languages) and is not specifically applied to traditional dialect words. The different linguistic levels involved with accents are described as Segmental phonemic (units of significant sounds) and Suprasegmental stress, rhythm and intonation. Speaking with a regional accent determines a person's geographical origins,
ORGANISATIONS, PEOPLE AND PERFORMANCE POST MODULE - Assignment Example By achieving these HR competencies, it will then be easy for Samsung to overcome most of the issues it is having. Talent management Talent management is a central part of any strategic business management (Deb, 2005). Samsung should include this as part of its HR strategy. Talent management will be managed by a process of hunting for talent and nurturing talent as a way to make sure that the firm will have a good pool of talent with regard to all its human resource areas. This will be important especially for the technical departments such as engineering in order to guarantee that Samsung will always be ahead of its competitors in producing the best technologies. It will also be important for the other departments because as Silzer and Dowell (2009) say, a formidable human resource is necessary for an organization to be competent in any industry. Training Training is the base of any human strategy and should be taken seriously if the organization is to be able to manage its employees (Brewster, Mayrhofer and Morley, 2004). It is training and recruitment that offers the organization an opportunity to get the kind of employees that they want. It also helps in training ordinary employees into competent managers and this means that the organization does not have to look outside for managers (Pynes and Lombardi, 2011). Figure 1.1, from: http://www.hrps.org/blogpost/736528/HR-Management-Strategies Samsung needs to look at the various ways in which it can develop its training program in order to get the best employees. Well planned training will help Samsung to have employees who will; Be ethical in their conduct thus avoiding issues such as copyright infringement. One of the issues that Samsung has had in the past is the fact that it has been involved in copyright infringement. This is something that reduced the strategic position of the organization due to the legal issues and the negative publicity which the firm gets from such. As a result, recruitment and training of employees in the firm should be done with this in mind. Issues such as copyright infringement are as a result of inadequate human resource. It is also an indication that the firm is having poor talent and therefore not being able to develop its own portfolio (Nejati et al, 2008). This has also been seen in the fact that Samsung does not have an operating system for most of its products. As a result, this makes Samsung to have a weaker strategic position compared to its major competitor, Apple, that has an own operating system for its product and never has to use third-party products. By training the right people, it will be easier for Samsung to be able to have people who can be innovative and productive enough to deal with these issues. There are other issues which need to be considered with regard to Samsungâ€™s human resource. These include the commitment of the employees. As Kumar (2010) says, it is hard for an organization to be able to have a competent human resource if the employees are not highly committed to the organization. In this case, Samsung will have to focus on increasing the commitment of the employees. This will help the organization to be able to improve its talent management and to make sure that there is enough talent in the organization
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Project management - Coursework Example Several studies revealed that majority of traffic collision is caused by human factors related to intoxication or the use of cell phones while driving (Strayer & Drews, 2004; Strayer, Drews, & Johnston, 2003; Williamson, Feyer, Friswel, & Finlay-Brown, 2001). In some cases, other forms of visual or sound distraction such as the presence of billboard in highways or the use of loud radio could also promote road accidents (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2008). To prevent unnecessary deaths caused by traffic collision, this project initiation document will discuss the importance of joint training and exercises as a way to improve the multi-agency response to road traffic collision. Project Aim / Goal The aim of this project is to develop and implement a joint training and exercises programs that will improve the multi-agency response to road traffic collision. Project Objectives The following project objectives will be considered to ensure that the project goal is attainable: 1. To encourage the health care team (doctors, emergency care medical personnel, and nurses) to participate and work together with other related agencies like police department, traffic enforcement group, and the transport department in developing and implementing a joint training and exercise programs that will reduce the number of controllable traffic collision that happens each day; and 2. To educate the public about human factors that can contribute to controllable traffic collision and how to avoid vehicular accidents. Project Benefits This project will not only increase the public awareness concerning the public with regards to the primary causes of traffic collision, it will also serve as a means of reducing the number of deaths due to vehicular accidents. Since vehicular accidents related to traffic collision could create socio-economic and emotional problems on the part of the victimsâ€™ family and loved ones, the project benefits can be more than the cost of encouraging the health care team (doctors, emergency care medical personnel, and nurses) to participate and work together with other related agencies like police department, traffic enforcement group, and the transport department in developing and implementing a joint training and exercise programs that aims to reduce the number of controllable traffic collision. Project Costs Based on the work breakdown structure presented on page 4, the estimated cost of this project is ?2,330,000. (See Appendix I â€“ Summary of Work Breakdown Structure on page 8) Business Case Based on the World Health Organization (2002) report, the global death associated with traffic collision is roughly 5 million each year whereas physical injuries caused these vehicular accidents can be as much as 12% of the total annual deaths (Peden, McGee, & Sharma, 2010). On top of the large number of road traffic injury cases, between 20 to 50 million people who becomes a victim of traffic collision has suffered from serious physical injuries (Geetha et al., 2010). Since the annual hospital cost of physical injuries related to traffic collision is between $65 billion to $100 billion (Geetha et al., 2010), implementing the proposed project with a budget of ?2,330,000 can be considered highly feasible. By implementing this project, the government will be able to save more people from going through the burden of paying large amount of money on hospital bills but also save the lives of thousands and
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